Categories include: Operations, Global Projections, Technology, Environmental Impact, Feed, & U.S. Regulations. Scroll down to find your resources of interest.

Offshore Operations


CALL FOR PAPERS-submit abstracts by Aug. 31st, 2019
for Aquaculture America 2020 Conference in Honolulu, Hawaii.

Site Selection Criteria for Open Ocean Aquaculture By Benetti, D., G. Benetti, J.A. Rivera, B. Sardenberg and B. O’Hanlon. Marine Technology Society Journal Volume 44, Number 3. May/June 2010, pp 22-35. 

Ocean Stewards Consensual Diving Standards for Offshore Aquaculture (1.0) Ocean Stewards Institute, Nov 2010.

The Wonder Fish By O’Brien, J. Fortune April 21, 2008. 

Annual Report – 2015 Centre for Research-Based Innovation Exposed Aquaculture Operations, 2015. 

Best Management Practices for Marine Cage Culture Operations in the U.S. Caribbean By Price, C.S. and J. Beck-Stimpert (editors). GCFI Special Publication Series 2014 Number 4. 52 pp. 

Sustainable Marine Aquaculture: Fulfilling the Promise; Managing the Risks Marine Aquaculture Task Force Report January 2007. 

Moving Cages Further Offshore: Effects on Southern Bluefin Tuna, T. maccoyii, Parasites, Health and Performance By Kirchhoff, N.T., K.M. Rough and B.F. Nowak. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23705. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023705

From Fishing to the Sustainable Farming of Carnivorous Marine Finfish. By Welch, A., Hoenig, R., Stieglitz, J., Benetti, D., Tacon, A., Sims, N. and O’Hanlon, B. Reviews in Fisheries Science 18: 3, 235 — 247, First published on: 13 September 2010 (iFirst) 

U.S. Offshore Aquaculture: Will we fish or cut bait?
2018 Industry Forum proceedings document from Consortium for Ocean Leadership in collaboration with Meridian Institute

Global Projections


Feeding 9 billion by 2050 – Putting fish back on the menu
By Béné, C., M. Barange, R. Subasinghe, P. Pinstrup-Andersen, G. Merino, G. Hemre, M. Williams Original Paper, Food Sec. (2015) 7:261–274, DOI 10.1007/s12571-015-0427-z. 

Will the Oceans Help Feed Humanity? By Duarte, C.M., M. Holmer, Y. Olsen, D. Soto, N. Marba, J. Guiu, K. Black and I. Karakassis. BioScience Vol. 50 No. 11, December 2009, pp 967-976. 

Economic analysis of supply and demand for food up to 2030 – Special focus on fish and fishery products. By Lem, A., T. Bjorndal, A. Lappo. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Circular No. 1089. Rome, FAO. 106 pp. 

Mapping the global potential for marine aquaculture
By Gentry, R., Froehlich, H., Grimm, D., Kareiva, P. Parke, M., Rust, M., Gaines, S. and Halpern, B. Original Paper, Nature: ecology & evolution. (2017). DOI 10.1038/s41559-017-0257-9.

Fish Intake, Contaminants, and Human Health, Evaluating the Risks and the Benefits. By Mozaffarian, D. and E.B. Rimm. American Medical Association JAMA October 18, 2006—Vol 296, No. 15. 

Cage aquaculture: Regional reviews and global overview
By Halwart, M., D. Soto and J.R. Arthur (editors). FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 498. Rome, FAO. 2007. 240 pp. 

The growth of finfish in global-open ocean aquaculture under climate change
By Klinger, D., Levin, S. and Watson, J. Original Paper, Proc. R. Soc. (2017) 284: 20170834, DOI 10.1098/rspb.2017.0834.

Changing Tastes: US market Insights and Opportunities in Aquaculture and Mariculture
By Changing Tastes Consultancy Firm and Datassential. March 2019.

Towards a blue revolution: Catalyzing private investment in sustainable aquaculture production systems
By The Nature Conservancy and Encourage Capital. May 2019.



Advances in Open Ocean Aquaculture Technology and the Future of Seafood Production By Benetti, D. and A. Welch. Journal of Ocean Technology Farming Fish Vol.5, No.2.

Environmental Impact


 The Aquaculture Opportunity The Nature Conservancy, Jan 2018.

Site fidelity and movements of sharks associated with ocean-farming cages in Hawaii By Papastamatiou, Y.P., D.G. Itano, J.J. Dale, C.G. Meyer and K.N. Holland. Marine and Freshwater Research 2010, 61, 1366–1375 

Beneficial Environmental Effects of Marine Finfish Mariculture
By Rensel, J. E. and J.R.M. Forster. Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, NOAA Report prepared for NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service National Sea Grant College Program Award # NA04OAR4170130, 22 July 2007. 

The nutrient footprint of a submerged-cage offshore aquaculture facility located in the tropical Caribbean
By Welch, A., Knapp, A., El Tourkey, S., Daughtery, Z., Hitchcock, G., and Benetti, D. Original Paper. World Aquaculture Society (2018) DOI 10.1111/jwas.12593.

Marine Cage Culture and the Environment: Twenty-first Century Science Informing a Sustainable Industry By Price, C.S. and J.A. Morris, Jr. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 2013 164. 158 pp. 

Environmental Performance of Marine Net-Pen Aquaculture in the United States By Rust, M.B., K. H. Amos, A.L. Bagwill, W.W. Dickhoff, L. M. Juarez, C.S. Price, J.A. Morris Jr. & M.C. Rubino. Fisheries 39:11, 508-524, DOI: 10.1080/03632415.2014.966818. 

Evaluation of the impacts of aquaculture and freshwater habitat on the status of Atlantic salmon stocks in Ireland By Jackson, D., T. McDermott, F. Kane, P. O’Donohoe and S. Kelly. Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4, No. 6A, 2013, pp 62-67. 

Report of the Working Group on Environmental Interactions of Mariculture International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Report of the Working Group on Environmental Interactions of Mariculture (WGEIM) 24-28 April 2006, Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA. ICES CM 2006/MCC:03. 195 pp.

Conservation aquaculture: Shifting the narrative and paradigm of aquaculture’s role in resource management
By Froehlich, H., Gentry, R. and Halpern, B. Original Paper. Biological Conservation (2017) 215:162-168. DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2017.09.012.


Sustainable Feed Resources of Marine Origin By Shepherd, C.J., I.H. Pike and S.M. Barlow. European Aquaculture Society Special Publication No. 35, June 2005, pp 59-66. 

State of Information on Salmon Aquaculture Feed and the Environment By Tacon, A.G.J. Aquatic Farms Ltd. 

Fishmeal industry overview By Shepherd, J., A. Jackson and J. Mittaine. International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organisation 2007. 

U.S. Regulations & Bills


Advancing the Quality and Understanding of American Aquaculture Act - AQUAA Act
2018 Bill - Introduced by senators Roger Wicker and Marco Rubio. Also introduced in the House by Representatives Steven Palazzo and Peter Collins.

U.S. Development of Offshore Aquaculture: Regulatory, Economic, and Political Factors By Buck, L.E. University of Washington A thesis in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Master of Marine Affairs 2012. 

Offshore Marine Aquaculture: Multiple Administrative and Environmental Issues Need to be Addressed in Establishing a U.S. Regulatory Framework By GAO, United States Government Accountability Office. House of Representatives Report to the Chairman, Committee on Natural Resources GAO-08-594, May 2008. 

Economic Effects of Gulf Aquaculture Amendment
Gulf of Mexico Fisheries Management Council (undated). 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Marine Aquaculture Policy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) June 2011. 

Offshore Aquaculture in the United States: Economic Considerations, Implications & Opportunities By Rubino, M. (editor). U.S. Department of Commerce; Silver Spring, MD NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS F/SPO-103 263 pages.